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    Financial Ratios Pdf

    Ratio analysis involves the construction of ratios using specific elements from the We can group financial ratios into five broad categories: liquidity ratios. Return on Assets Ratio. 15 how to analyze your business using financial ratios. Using a sample income statement and balance sheet, this guide shows you how. Financial Ratio Cheatsheet. PDF Interest Earned. Find more Liquidity Ratios on the financial ratios page.

    Financial analysis means different things to different people. Trade creditors are primarily interested in the liquidity of the firm being analyzed. Their claims are short term and the ability of the firm to pay these can best be judged by an analysis of its liquidity. On the other hands, the claims of bondholders are long term. They are interested in the cash flow of the firm to service debts over a long period of time.

    The notion of treating liquidity as a function of the flow of funds as opposed z to a stock of funds is amplified by Sorter and Benston who advocate liquidity evaluation by a collection of interval measures, which are the ratios between certain defensive assets cash and near-cash and various measures of future expenditure and are expressed as a number of days.

    T h e Use of Financial Ratios f o r Predictive Purpose5 Financial ratios have been used as inputs for advanced statistical models to forecast many kinds of business event and to identify financial and other characteristics. Notable studies include Ingram and Copeland who used regression analysis to measure the relationship between differences in finan- cial ratios across municipalities and the risk premiums on their bonds.

    Horrigan used correlation analysis, while Pinches and Mingo used MDA to predict published corporate bond ratings by means of individual ratios. Rege and Belkaoui are recent studies which have used financial ratios to identify characteristics of takeover targets.

    But the main focus has been on testing mainly multivariate statistical models which use financial ratios to predict business failure.

    Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements (Formula, Types, Excel)

    These were based on the original work of Beaver and Altman Beaver matched a sample of failed firms with a sample of non-failed firms and studied their financial ratios for a period of up to five years before failure and found that they had high predictive ability.

    Each ratio was analysed separately and the cut-off point selected so as to maximise the number of accurate classifications for a particular sample. This technique was to become known as classification analysis and was essentially univariate. Altman used a well known multivariate statistical technique in the social sciences called multiple discriminant analysis MDA.

    You might also like: FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING EBOOK

    This was popularised as the Z-score model and was successfully marketed for credit analysis, investment analysis and going-concern evaluation. MDA finds that combination of variables which best discriminates between two or more BARNES classification groups here failed and non-failed firms by means of a statistical technique which estimates. Since then the technique has been applied to dif- ferent countries and industries, and in particular the US banking industry.

    Statistical models using financial ratios have been used to identify the finan- cial characteristics of problem banks Sinkey, ; and Pettway and Sinkey, , lending decisions, and capital adequacy Dince and Fortson, There have been other approaches. Altman et al. This may be preferable in bankruptcy prediction where it is not mere classification that is usually required but rather the probability of failure.

    In this model the firm is the gambler and bankruptcy occurs when its net worth falls to zero. However, applications of the model have been disappointing as it assumes that periodic cash flows are independent of each other. In fact Wilcox dis- carded the functional form as suggested in the model and used the variables zyxw it suggested for an operationally predictive model.

    It is not possible here to review in detail the enormous number of empirical studies. Both Pinches and Eisenbeis identified a number of difficulties arising from the statistical assumptions made in the application of the technique which researchers did not usually address. These include: the assumptions of multivariate normality irf the distribution of the sample groups, the equality of the group dispersion variance-covariance matrices, addressing the problems of determining the zyxwv relative importance of individual variables, reducing the number of variables that do not significantly contribute to the overall discriminating model, the selection of prior probabilities and costs of misclassification, and the classifica- tion error rates.

    Joy and Tollefson , using Altman to illustrate their points, argued that the predictive ability was often exaggerated.

    Also, ratios by themselves cannot describe a dynamic system of corporate collapse. These studies may demonstrate that failed and non-failed firms have different ratios, but not that ratios have preditive power. There are certain other points concerning predictive ability particularly rele- vent to this review. A model is only useful for predictive purposes if the under- lying relationships and parameters are stable over time. Otherwise it will only be valid for the sample period and it cannot be extrapolated into a subsequent period with the same expected performance Altman and Eisenbeis, This raises the question of the stationarity of the model and ratios over time.

    Dombolena and Khoury found a substantial amount of instability in the financial ratios as measured by their standard deviations and their coeffi- cients of variation in the ratios of firms which went bankrupt compared with those that did not. This instability increased over time as the firm neared failure. There is also evidence that the relationships among the variables are also zyx unstable over time. In fact these variables change. It is also necessary that the discriminating coefficients are stationary.

    However, for pro- prietary reasons these are not usually disclosed. Which are the useful ratios for bankruptcy prediction and are there certain ratios that consistently show u p in the discriminant studies? The published studies usually identify particularly significant ratios. However, there is no absolute test for the importance of variables and the significance of particular variables and the pros and cons of various statistics are debated.

    However, the way in which variables are selected needs to be considered. Ratios are usually selected on the basis of their popularity in the literature together with a few new ones initiated by the researcher. The theoretical im- portance of the results is therefore restricted as those variables which figure in the final discriminant model are chosen according to their ability to improve its discriminating power.

    Ratio selection is a contentious matter because information overlaps in- dividual ratios. T o identify those ratios which contain complete information about a firm whilst minimising duplication cannot be achieved purely by logic; inTact i t is largely an empirical matter in which correlational independence is used as a statistical criterion.

    T h e results yielded seven financial ratio factor patterns: return on investment, capital turnover, inventory turnover, financial leverage, receivables turnover, short term liquidity and the cash position and that these groups were reasonably stable over time.

    Building on this, Johnson conducted a similar study involving retail and primary manufacturing firms and found that financial ratio factor patterns common to both involved those seven plus decomposition measures. Elsewhere, Laurent found ten factors in his study of Hong Kong, and Mear and Firth added growth in size and growth in profitability from their study of New Zealand data.

    Gom- bola and Ketz found that cash flow measures also represented a separate dimension of firm performance, although general price-level adjusted finan- cial ratios did not. They showed factor patterns very similar to those of historical cost ratios, including the cash flow factor. Pinches, Eubank, Mingo and Car- ruthers further examined short-term stability in order to empirically establish a hierarchical classification.

    They studied interrelationships among the seven first-order classifications and identified higher order factors which were return on invested capital, overall liquidity and short term capital turnover. Are financial ratios and prediction models sensitive to the use of alternative accounting methods?

    Norton and Smith compared the performance of a M D A bankruptcy prediction model using traditional historical cost data and zyxwvut using data adjusted for changes in general price-levels GPL. They found these were similar, although Solomon and Beck showed how the model was biased against a finding of predictive GPL data, and Ketz found that GPL data slightly improved performance.

    Short used factor analysis to test whether empirical zy zy classifications were similar under historical and price-level accounting.

    He found that they were unaffected, suggesting that the meaning of a ratio is not altered by a price-level adjustment. Financial ratios have been used to assess and forecast company risk in other contexts.

    Falk and Heintz used industry financial ratios in what is called a partial order scalogram technique to scale industries according to their degree of risk.

    T o a similar end, Gupta and Huefner used cluster analysis to relate ratios to established economic characteristics of the industries involved. Early work was by Thompson and Bildersee who examined such correlations, and now commercial services are available for practitioners see Foster, , p.

    However, there are at least four aspects in which there has been little advance. Firstly, the recent advances made on the methodological aspects have not yet been picked up in the applied work, certainly not by re- searchers and probably not by analysts. The second concerns predictive abil- ity of accounting numbers in the context of the use of financial ratios. It is left as a mere empirical question and, as has been shown, even then, not examined rigorously.

    Thirdly, as the company failure studies blatently zyxwv demonstrate, accounting ratios are rarely used in the financial literature to test hypotheses and theories of economic and financial behaviour. Rather, they are testing the strange hypothesis that, without a theory, a n event, be it a com- pany failure, a takeover or an earnings figure, may be forecast from data simply selected statistically.

    Fourthly, there has been little advance in behavioural insights into the use of financial ratios - especially given the advances in the methodological analysis and the behavioural assumptions on which it is based. However, his use of a log-linear partial adjustment model has recently been criticised by Frecka and Lee and Lee whose evidence, using more sophisticated adjust- ment models, is not so conclusive.

    See, for example, Tummins and Watson According to Joy and Tollefson a more appropriate statistic would indicate that it was the least impor- tant. See Altman and Eisenbeis for a rebuttal and further discussion. Haldeman and P. Eisenbeis Barnes, P. Bazley, J.

    Beaver, W. Selected Studies Supplement to Journal of Accounting Research , p. Bedingfield, J. Reckers and A. Belkaoui, A. Benishay, H. Bierman, H. Bilderscc, J. Bird, R. Brown, P. Buijink, W. Chen, K. Courtis, J. Davidson, S. Sorter and E. Deakin, E. Edey and B. Yamey Sweet and Maxwell, London, Dince, R.

    Dombolena, I. Edminster, R. Eisenbeis, R. Elam, R. Ezzamel, M. This comparison gives insight into the relatives of financial conditions and performance of the firm. But my emphasis in this research work is to limit it to the first comparison or internal business enterprises have leased to operate or collapsed as a result of increase in market uncertainties with unsteady interest raes exchange rate, political instability and inability of some business managers to use financial ratio effectively and accurately in the assessment of the performance of their organization.

    In order to attain the traditional objectives of maximization of shareholders wealth, the managers should use or apply financial ratio in taking necessary business decision.

    As a result of economic hardship and inflation prevailing in the economic, it becomes very important that an effective and reliable means of evaluating the performance of companies for investment decision should be adopted any management shareholder creditors and even general public.

    Financial ratios analysis is one of the major techniques and in evaluating performance of business organizations. Financial ratio exposes the position of the business in terms of performance and efficiency of operation.

    They show whether the management are efficient or inefficient in their utilization of resources such as capital assets, labor etc. Prospective investors 7 can now measure their risk in the company and decide whether to invest in the company or not. Financial ratios indicate whether the value of stock of the company is increasing or falling. This provides prospective investors opportunities to decide whether to invest or not and existing stock holders whether to hold stock or dispose them Because financial ratios express areas of weakness and strength of the companies mangers used them to review operations for better performances in future.

    It will equally examine the indicators of strength, weakness, opportunity and threat SWOT The management will take appropriate corrective actions to actions to improve the result when the weakness are identified. The identification of weakness and consequently improving the result will provide the investors the opportunities to know the propensity of the company to achieve progressive growth and equally make decisions of the investment. It is usually observed that the operating profit figure of a company might be higher in the current year than the previous year but his higher profit figure cannot be used to say the company has performed better in the current year than in the previous because the cost of the asset is being considered in all the 10 beginning of that first year which may reduce the profit for that period..

    Financial Ratios Cheat Sheet

    If this is judge based on this, it will have adverse or negative impact on the investment or investors. Many investors in Nigeria are uneducated or illiterate and as a result of ignorance or inexperience, they cannot use or employ financial ratios in evaluating the performance of the companies. Also existing shareholders use the cash dividends and interest paid to them in evaluating the performance of the companies for investment decision.

    These parameters do not give accurate information about the performance and efficiency of operation of the companies. Some managers do not employ financial ratios in performance appraisal and in the evaluation of investment decision because of technicalities involved in financial ratio analysis, fear of assessment and in experience.

    Therefore, they make use of other alternatives inside of using financial ratios. Because of all this problems, the research work will go or examine they importance or usefulness of financial ratios in evaluating of companies performance for investment decision. Every benefits derived from financial ratio will be examined for proper investment decisions.

    Public corporation are not treated in the study. Time and finance were equally limiting factors of this study finally restricted access o secondary information sources was also restricted in the study. It is divided into two a. Fixed asset eg building, Equipment etc. Current assets eg cash at hand , bank stock debated. The claims of creditors against the asset of a business eg.

    Creditors, bank overdraft. This benefit derived from the shareholders because of their interest in the company.

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