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Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 20tll, 39, 1~~ 2 Manazuru Marine Laboratoryfor Science Education, Yokohama National University. published, and during this time advances in the field of marine biology have been This book is concerned with the greatest of these divisions, the marine. Library collections require constant evaluation and management. We conceived of this bibliography project out of a desire to have readily available tools to.
Knowledge of the ocean and its organisms expanded as people gained skills in seamanship and navigation. Ancient Atoll in the Federated Pacific Islanders had detailed knowledge of marine like this one. They were consummate mariners, using clues such as wind, wave, and current patterns to navigate over vast distances.
The Phoenicians were the first accomplished Western navigators.
By B. The ancient Greeks had considerable knowledge of nearshore organisms in the Mediterranean region Fig. The Greek philosopher Aristotle, who lived in the fourth century B. He described many forms of marine life and recognized, among other things, that gills are the breathing apparatus of fish. During the centuries known as the Dark Ages, scientific inquiry, including the study of marine life, came to a grinding halt in most of Europe.
Much of the knowledge of the ancient Greeks was lost or distorted. Not all exploration of the ocean stopped, however. During the ninth and tenth centuries the Vikings continued to explore the northern Atlantic. The fish at the right is an electric ray Torpedo , which the ancient Greeks used to deliver the first electrical stimulation therapy.
Arab traders were also active during the Middle Ages, voyaging to eastern Africa, southeast Asia, and India.
In the Far East and the Pacific, people also continued to explore and learn about the sea. During the Renaissance, spurred in part by the rediscovery of ancient knowledge preserved by the Arabs, Europeans again began to investigate the world around them, and several undertook voyages of exploration.
In Ferdinand Magellan embarked on the first expedition to sail around the globe. Many other epic voyages contributed to our knowledge of the oceans. Fairly accurate maps, especially of places outside Europe, began to appear for the first time. Before long, explorers became curious about the ocean they sailed and the things that lived in it.
An English sea captain, James Cook, was one of the first to make scientific observations along the way and to include a full-time naturalist among his crew. In a series of three great voyages, beginning in , he explored all the oceans. Cook was the first to use a chronometer, an accurate timepiece that enabled him to accurately determine his longitude and therefore prepare reliable charts. From the Arctic to the Antarctic, from Alaska to Australia, Cook extended and reshaped the European conception of the world.
He brought back specimens of plants and animals and tales of strange new lands. By the nineteenth century, it had become common for vessels to take a naturalist along to study the organisms encountered. Perhaps the most famous of these shipboard naturalists was Charles Darwin, another Englishman. Beginning in , Darwin sailed around the world on HMS Beagle for five years, horribly seasick most of the time.
Though best known for the theory of evolution, Darwin made many other 3 contributions to marine biology. He used nets to capture the tiny, drifting organisms known as plankton, which marine biologists continue to do today Fig. Specialists still refer to his treatise on them. Charles Wilkes of the U. Wilkes was by all accounts a vain and cruel man who promoted himself to Captain as soon as he left port, and upon his return was court-martialed for flogging his crew to excess.
The expedition charted 2, km 1, mi of the coast of Antarctica, confirming it as a continent, as well as the coast of the Pacific Northwest of North America. It explored some islands in the South Pacific, collecting information about peoples and cultures as well as flora and fauna.
The 10, biological specimens included some 2, previously unknown species Fig. The expedition, the first international survey sponsored by the United States government, also laid a foundation for government funding of scientific research. The Challenger Expedition By the middle of the nineteenth century a few lucky scientists were able to undertake voyages specifically to study the oceans, instead of having to tag along on ships doing other jobs.
One was Edward Forbes, who in the s and s carried out extensive dredging of the sea floor, mostly around his native Britain but also in the Aegean Sea and other places. Forbes died prematurely in , at the age of 39, but was the most influential marine biologist of his day.
Perhaps his most important contribution, however, was to inspire new interest in the life of the sea floor. Their ships were poorly equipped and the voyages short, but their studies produced many interesting results.
They were so successful, in fact, that British scientists managed to convince their government to fund the first major oceanographic expedition, under the scientific leadership of FIGURE 1.
One is signaling instructions to the winch operator. The sheer volume of the data was enormous.
After the Challenger expedition returned to port, it took 19 years to publish the results, which fill 50 thick volumes. Challenger brought back more information about the ocean than had been recorded in all previous human history.
It was not just the duration of the voyage or the amount of information collected that set the Challenger expedition apart from earlier efforts. The expedition set new standards for studying the ocean. Measurements were made systematically and carefully, and meticulous records were kept. The crew worked with great efficiency and dedication to the task.
They also learned more about the enormous variety of marine life, for first described it, is one of 2, marine and terrestrial species discovered by the expedition. Challenger brought back thousands of previously unknown species. Thus, the Challenger expedition laid the foundations of modern marine science.
Charles Wyville Thompson. The British navy supplied a light Other expeditions soon continued the work begun by warship to be fitted out for the purpose. The ship was named Challenger, and major oceanographic cruises continue to this day. HMS Challenger. In many ways, though, the voyage of the Challenger remains one Challenger underwent extensive renovations in preparation of the most important in the history of oceanography.
Some might argue that oysters are in Some sections are broad surveys ogy and Paleoecology. Marine Primary Produc- others provide detailed and in-depth reviews of current ers, R. Ferguson, G. Thayer, and T.
Rice; 3. Because of the breadth of coverage and its Marine Bacteria, L. Stevenson and T. Chrza- organization within chapters by taxonomic groups, nowski; 4. Zooplankton, D. Heinle; 5. Meiofauna, the book is somewhat too comprehensive to be a text, W. Vernberg and B. Coull; 6. Benthic Macro- and makes for tedious reading.
Even so, the references fauna, F. Vernberg; 7. Pelogic Macrofauna, M. Belman; 8. Functional Adaptations mary literature, and it will be an invaluable source for of Deep-Sea Organisms, R. All of the chapter authors have tried to use a com- I suspect that few people will read the book from cover mon outline beginning with introductions to niche or to cover, but it should become a widely-used reference habitat categories followed by descriptions of adapta- work.
I recommend it to anyone interested in salt tions for meeting competition, for contending with marshes. I suspect its au- Btology and Coastal Research, and dience will be limited to serious students of marine Book Reviews 85 science. Several of its chapters are nicely done sum- reflects Meanley's historical approach, both Audubon maries of the current status of research in the specific and Alexander Wilson are cited for example, some of area.
This is true of the chapters on primary produc- the literature is simply old. Indeed, a few sections of tion, on zooplankton, on meiofauna and especially, the the book bring back memories of the early volumes of last chapter on some of the adaptations o f deep-sea the Bent "Life histories" series and appear to be little organisms, which this reviewer found to include a very more than compilations of anecdotal reports, and many well organized and written summary of cellular and of Meanley's chapters fail to provide enough meat on molecular responses of deep-sea animals to high hy- crucial issues.
Those of us seeking an "authoritative drostatic pressures. This is not to say that a quick readthrough o f the text, by those already familiar with its subject matter, cannot serve as a general over- view. Indeed, such a reading can provide much food Waterfowl of the Chesapeake Bay Country. By Brooke for thought. Meanley touches on most of the obligate Meanley. Tidewater PubL, Centreville, areas including, in tantalizingly brief fashion, some of Maryland. The recently accelerated out- ery and the increase in Canada goose numbers excess pouring of books on our so called 'magnificant' pred- 'waste' corn as a result of mechanization , as well as atory birds for example has prompted one reviewer the related phenomenon of "short stopping.
Wa- Francis Uhler pictured in the book and more recently terfowl too seem to garner more than their fair share Matthew Perry, whose long-term studies of waterfowl o f attention as publishers appear only too happy to food habits and population trends are models of sci- oblige an awaiting public.
Apparently as a result of entific doggedness. Meanley also is to be commended both their large size and beauty and the fact that some for his avoidance o f waterfowl jargon, although I wish are hunted for sport, ducks, geese and swans are the he had not used the term "native species.
While such abundance can at times of the chapter on bald eagles might lead to increased lead over-indulgent anseriphiles to the brink o f bank- persecution of that species. Meanley's inexplicable 4 ruptcy, the current cornucopia provides reviewers with page account of the relationship between bald eagles an opportunity to make comparisons and to offer al- and waterfowl begins and ends with easily miscon- ternatives to less wholesome offerings. Unfortunately, strued statements concerning spurious correlations be- Brooke Meanley's rather attractive and modestly priced tween eagle and duck numbers.
While the author men- book does not fare well in this regard. More than a third of its pages are de- ingly able-bodied duck! This is not to say the bald voted to a series o f 83 black and white photos and 14 eagles do not take healthy waterfowl, they certainly do, drawings, the latter by John W. Most of the but Meanley's handling of the matter leaves much to photos are quite good and all are tied to the text.
There be desired. Why, for example, does he close the chapter are also several maps. Almost all species of waterfowl with a paragraph noting coincidental drops in canvas- mentioned are illustrated, most in close-up photo- back and bald eagle numbers on the bay without stat- graphs.
The text is arranged in 12 chapters with 7 ing the very different reasons for those declines, none appendices including 2 that describe the bay, 4 that of which stem from a predator-prey relationship be- detail the past and present size and structure of the tween the two. Bald eagles are still being shot at and waterfowl community, one each on migration, breed- killed in the Cheaspeake Bay. Unfortunately, Mean- ing biology, and diet, and three peripheral chapters tey's chapter may only act to incite these needless and including an especially enjoyable but far too brief ac- criminal acts.
Both he and the publishers should con- count of old time duck hunting in the region, a chapter sider deleting this chapter in future editions. The format o f the book is such that Although the flyleaf claims the book "provides up- the text does not appear on pages with figures regardless to-date information superceding many earlier studies," of figure size, and many pages have large white areas.
While part of this considerable paper. Ducks, geese and swans of p. North America.